Sunday, February 5, 2017

Biochemistry Practice Questions

Biochemistry Practice Problems
Compilation from Various Internet Sources
Posted on 5 Feb 2017

Check for more updates in Future

DOWNLOAD 1: Atomic Structure and Chemical Bonding 
DOWNLOAD 2: Mole concept and concentration terms 
DOWNLOAD 3: pH and Buffers 
DOWNLOAD 4: Bioenergetics 

Monday, January 9, 2017

Basics of Microarray

Basics of Microarray
Edited by: Dr. Aditya Arya*
Date of publication: 11 Jan 2017

Microarray is a hybridization of a nucleic acid sample (target) to a very large set of oligonucleotide probes, which are attached to a solid support, to determine the sequence or to detect variations in a gene sequence or expression or for gene mapping.  Several competing technologies for microarray probe implementation have emerged. Affymetrix (name of the company) pioneered this field with by using in situ synthesized oligonucleotides as probes and by designing microarrays in silico, thereby obviating the need for the management of clone libraries. Later two more major companies named Agilent and Illumina begun their microarray platforms based on slightly different strategies.  DNA microarrays can be used to detect DNA (as in comparative genomic hybridization), or detect RNA (most commonly as cDNA after reverse transcription) that may or may not be translated into proteins. The process of measuring gene expression via cDNA is called expression analysis or expression profiling. Microarray technology has two major applications: Gene Expression Analysis and Genetic Variation Analysis.

This Quick note provides a comprehensive understanding of microarray technique for especially for undergraduate students. However, for the researchers who intend to carry out actual microarray experiments, must consult further readings of this text.

Wednesday, December 28, 2016

Polymerase Chain Reaction

Dr. Aditya Arya, Dr. Amit Kumar and Ms Jayanti Jha
Date of publication: 30 Dec 2016

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is one of the most important tools in molecular biology which allows amplification of nucleic acid sequences in vitro through repetitive cycles. PCR can replicate any specific region of DNA billions fold in few hours. The PCR machine is also called as thermocycler. This Quick Note describes variants (including most modern classes of PCR called digital PCR)

Saturday, November 12, 2016

Principles of Microscopy
Aditya Arya, PhD

Date of publication: 13 Nov 2016

Microscopic techniques are critical to several research domains including biology, Physics and Chemistry and even in clinical diagnosis. Apart from an essential tool in research, microscopes have become a teaching a learning companion for both students and teachers. Since the inventions of first microscope by Hans and Zacharias Janssen in 1590, microscopes have evolved a lot both in terms of improved resolution and magnification. The best microscopes today can have a resolution of less than 1 angstrom and a magnification of over 1 million, while our eyes cannot resolve two dots at a distance lesser than 0.2 mm. Increasing resolution and magnification has created enormous opportunities in research and wider scope of application. Now, microscopes are used in clinical diagnosis, molecular and cell biology studies, nano-material research and even determination of structure of bio molecules.

Microscopy is the technical field of using microscopes to view objects and areas of objects that cannot be seen with the naked eye (objects that are not within the resolution range of the normal eye). There are three well-known branches of microscopy: optical, electron, and scanning probe microscopy.

In this Quick note, we will be discussing about basic principles and types of common microscopic techniques and their application in Life Science Research.

Sunday, November 6, 2016

In situ Hybridization Techniques from Ish… to Shish….

Dr. Aditya Arya

Date of publication: 6 Nov 2016

Among various other biochemical and molecular techniques, in situ hybridization techniques have their own importance especially due to its ability to detect a molecular change directly at its site of occurrence. In situ hybridization was developed by Joseph G. Gall and Mary-Lou Pardue in 1969. In situ hybridization  is a type of hybridization of target DNA or RNA with  a labeled complementary DNA, RNA or modified nucleic acids strand (commonly known as probe) to localize a specific DNA or RNA sequence in a portion or section of tissue (in situ), or, if the tissue is small enough (e.g., plant seeds, Drosophila embryos), in the entire tissue (whole mount ISH), in cells, and in circulating tumor cells (CTCs) etc. Originally, the detection of hybridization was based on radioactive nucleotides and detection of radioactivity, however the with the advent of highly specific and sensitive fluorophore it is now possible to tag probes with fluorophore and therefore the technique is now popular as Florescent in situ hybridization of FISH.  In this Quick note a description about the principle, its variants and applications are provided. 

Saturday, October 22, 2016

A Guide for Choosing M.Sc. program in Life Sciences is finally released..

Must read for all B.Sc. life Science students aspiring to do M.Sc. in Life Sciences

This book is intended for many students who wonder what next after their BSc in biological sciences. As a stepwise guide, this will also serve as a self counselling tool to the students. In the past decade, It was common tradition in Indian education system that most of the student and of course their parents train their students to prepare for medical or engineering exams, and in case not selected in medical exams they often seek the basic biology courses such as BSc followed by MSc, without even known the scope and opportunities in this segment of educational qualification. The trends are however changing and students as well as parents are become aware by emerging trends in print and digital media and students are orienting themselves towards non-conventional vocational courses or conventional non-tradition courses for MSc.  The lack of awareness of suitable courses or the opportunities prevents the young talent from being groomed and thus results in poor employability. A prospective doctor becomes a teacher, a prospective teacher joins a marketing expert in industries and in neither of the cases individuals becomes successful. This book is an attempt to guide young students to groom their talent by reaching the suitable place and also knowing the prospective path of their professional life.  
This book contain several chapters which describe about the importance of MSc course and guide students to make a choice between various programs. Also, this book provides comprehensive details about a number of courses and institutions offering MSc programs in biological sciences. A separate chapter has been added on how to prepare for MSc entrance exams and opportunities outside India,


Wednesday, September 28, 2016

Writing an Effective Research Proposal/ Write-up 

Dr. Aditya Arya
Date of Publication: 28th Sep 2016

Research proposals and write up are very important for entrance in some of the premiere Institutes of India such as TIFR (Tata Institute of Fundamental research) as well as for various MS programs abroad. As a matter of fact most of the students in Indian universities (except premiere Institutes) are not exposed to hardcore research and have hands on learning experience on limited techniques and seldom perform a research based project. Some of the summer training programs such as Indian Academies Summer Fellowship (IAS) provides opportunity to Masters Students to undergo research oriented training and experience scientific procedures. Usually, the purpose of asking for such research proposals or write ups from the students, is to determine the scientific aptitude, level of technical skills and interest of the candidate to determine the suitability for specific position or course. 

Based on the increasing demand from the students and several queries, this articles was prepared, Any comments or suggestions may be made at the comment option below or further queries may be sent to 

EXTENDED and UPDATED on Oct 3, 2016

Tuesday, September 20, 2016

Hand Written Notes

Dr. Aditya Arya 
20 Sep 2016

I am glad to share with you scanned copy of my handwritten notes (made during undergraduate/Postgraduate studies) on following topics. Based on the request from various students I am now making them available publicly for academic purpose. These notes are very basic and you may need to add more to this if preparing for CSIR-NET. I will try uploading some more notes in future. under the same title. 
More additions will be made in future.

File size is quite big and it may take a long time to download. 

At present you may download notes of following topics 

1. Basic Zoology of Invertebrates, case studies  (Greyscale) : Coloured will be revised soon 
2. Ecological Principles (Mostly from Eugene P Odum and PS Verma): Very large file !!
3. Oxidation Phosphorylation (various Biochemistry Books) 
4. Animal Physiology (various books) - updated on 10 Oct 2016
5. Molecular Diagnostics (various books) - updated on 6th Nov 2016
6. Immunology (short notes) only for revision after Kuby - updated on 3 Dec 2016
7. Enzyme Technology (Useful for GATE) - updated on 4 Jan 2017
8. Life cycle of some animal viruses and oncogenes (related to rDT and virology) - updated 8 Jan 17









DOWNLOAD 8 (VIROLOGY/oncogenes) 

Saturday, August 20, 2016

The Protein Folding Problem: Anfinsen hypothesis and Levinthal paradox

Dr. Aditya Arya, Dr. Amit Kumar
Date of publication: 21 Aug 2016

We all know that proteins fold spontaneously on keeping them in suitable aqueous environment. However, there are some deeper questions which we must know about protein folding that, what are the models of proteins folding? Which route does a protein follow while folding? And how protein folding does not defy the second law of thermodynamics despite of the fact the randomness of protein itself is reduced on folding? We would also understand two famous hypothesis put forth by Levinthal and Anfinsen and various probability based question arising about the protein structure. . Infact the work of Anfinsen was recognized globally and he was awarded Nobel Prize in chemistry in the year 1972. Finally this note will end with a few practice MCQs based on the two key concepts.
There have been a number of questions in MSc entrances including JNU, IISc and TIFR on anfinsen hypothesis and levinthal paradox. 

Sunday, July 24, 2016

Illustrated Summary of Metabolism 
Dr. Aditya Arya
Date of publication: 24.07.2016

Metabolic processes are so complicated and it is difficult to understand them especially when we observe the individualistic approach. In biochemistry, It is equally important to have a bird eye's view on overall metabolism of various bio molecules to get a clear idea of what is happening to food that we eat. How it is digested, transported and utilised in the body. Liver is central to all metabolic processes and the functions of liver are regulated under the tight control of nervous system and hormonal system. Here in this post I present you an illustrated view of the overall process. This is a PDF (non-printable) documents only intended for digital reading. These illustrations are closely related to classroom lectures, so students may also visit the you tube channel to view some of the related classroom lectures on Biochemistry to recall the content (click to visit channel)., This content is adopted from Concise Biochemistry - by Aditya Arya. Hope this will help in enhancing the understanding of the topic. 

Friday, July 8, 2016

Grassroots Academy official blog milestone.

Grassroots Academy thanks all its visitors for this milestone
We wish to serve you better......

Upcoming posts very soon

>>>> Polymerase Chain reaction
>>>> Analysis of Biochemistry and techniques questions of CSIR NET

Thursday, June 9, 2016

Proteolytic Enzyme: Basic information and cleavage rules

Dr. Aditya Arya
Date of publication: 10 June 2016

Cleavage pattern obtained from proteolytic enzymes are commonly used to determine the sequence of small proteins or peptides.  Most of the proteolytic enzymes are capable of cleaving the protein at specific positions. Cleaving a protein with specific enzyme and then analysing the fragments may help in the determination of the order of amino acids by simple logical reasoning.   In this quick note we will understand how to solve such questions and also a detailed view cleavage rules. Additionally, we will also understand the problem solving skills based on the cleavage rules. Concluding remarks include commercial applications of proteases. This note has been prepared by content provided by global experts in the field of proteins (European Molecular Biology Laboratory and Swiss Bioinformatics Institute).  

NOTE: Past years trends of CSIR-NET exam and other nationwide competitive exams have shown frequent usage of these rule in questions. The question might appear very difficult and cannot be solved if we do not know the cleavage rules.  Most of books and online solved papers have not provided any details or solutions of such questions and this is Exclusive content prepared by us. Hope this will help in your preparation. 

Sunday, June 5, 2016


Understanding the fact that enzymology is one the key areas of many competitive exams and there is a lot of confusion over various type of regulation, we are providing you free access to one of the chapter (a few pages deleted) of our brand new "Concise Biochemistry" book which is further supported by a video lecture by author on the same topic. All the previously asked questions have been solved at the end of the chapter. 

Hope it will help in your last minute preparation. Good Luck.

CLICK here to download enzyme regulation chapter 

CLICK here to watch the video lecture on the same topic

Saturday, June 4, 2016

TIPS and TRICKS by Grassroots Academy

We hope that your preparation is going well, this is a new series of Tricks and Tips we are beginning with a small creative.. Hope You will like this.:   Best Wishes

Wednesday, May 25, 2016

Grassroots Academy Introduces "Concise Biochemistry" especially written for competitive exams including CSIR-NET

Dear Students, 

I am glad to present this book entitled “Concise Biochemistry” especially written for preparation of CSIR-NET/ICMR/GATE and many other nationwide competitive exams for MSc. courses. This book will also be useful as concise teaching guide, learning aid for university exams and as well as a general Biochemistry text.  Although students may opt for a large number of Biochemistry books (for CSIR-NET, GATE etc.) in the market written with the objective of preparing a support to these exams but they mostly provide MCQs and lack the conceptual knowledge that is needed to solve questions in these exams.  However, I should not include my critical evaluation for some of the finest books on biochemistry including Lehninzer Biochemistry by Nelson and Cox, Biochemistry by Voet and Voet and Harpers Biochemistry, Lippincott’s illustrated reviews,  which have been a source of inspiration and guidelines for me to write this book and I must acknowledge their authors for using their ideas and analogies at some instances in this book and  I would suggest students to read these books for any further details on the subject. As an additional advantage, this book is concise and focused for competitive exams distinguishing it from other books.
This book has been divided in the three parts, the first part is essential chemistry for biology that includes atomic structure, intermolecular interactions, bio-energetics and kinetics.  These topics are generally omitted or curtailed by many biochemistry books but as they are very important and frequently asked in exams. Student often find those topics difficult and waste time in searching good content on these topics especially in biological context. Second part of the book contains description on all the key biomolecules, some new information has also been added on all the biomolecules especially based on the trend of previous exams. The third part consist of Metabolism and its regulation by enzymes, Although metabolism is much curtailed, yet, I have included some important points in metabolism like tracing molecules and organ specific metabolism which will provide additional benefit to the student by reading these topics.
In order to make this book customized for exams, after each chapter one page concept map, solutions to previous year questions from that topic and some of the high yielding facts have been added. The purpose of these sections is to provide a memory aid to the students. Additionally an exam index and statistics of exam questions from various papers has also been provided in the beginning of each chapter.

Additionally you are being provided free access to a few curtailed videos of classroom lectures of Biochemistry on you tube   CLICK HERE 

With best Wishes for CSIR-NET Exam 

Dr. Aditya Arya, Grassroots Academy