Basics of Microarray
Edited by: Dr. Aditya Arya*
Date of publication: 11 Jan 2017
Microarray is a hybridization of a nucleic acid sample (target) to a very large set of oligonucleotide probes, which are attached to a solid support, to determine the sequence or to detect variations in a gene sequence or expression or for gene mapping. Several competing technologies for microarray probe implementation have emerged. Affymetrix (name of the company) pioneered this field with by using in situ synthesized oligonucleotides as probes and by designing microarrays in silico, thereby obviating the need for the management of clone libraries. Later two more major companies named Agilent and Illumina begun their microarray platforms based on slightly different strategies. DNA microarrays can be used to detect DNA (as in comparative genomic hybridization), or detect RNA (most commonly as cDNA after reverse transcription) that may or may not be translated into proteins. The process of measuring gene expression via cDNA is called expression analysis or expression profiling. Microarray technology has two major applications: Gene Expression Analysis and Genetic Variation Analysis.
This Quick note provides a comprehensive understanding of microarray technique for especially for undergraduate students. However, for the researchers who intend to carry out actual microarray experiments, must consult further readings of this text.